X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia and COVID-19: Two Case Reports and Review of Literature

Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol. 2021 Sep;34(3):115-118. doi: 10.1089/ped.2021.0002.


Introduction: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has listed primary immunodeficiency disorders as being predisposed to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, patients affected with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) have shown contrary results. In this study, we present 2 boys in late adolescence from south India with XLA who were infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as well as a review of cases reported in the literature. Case Presentation: Two patients with XLA had been diagnosed late and were started on regular immunoglobulin prophylaxis only during adolescence. Both of them had developed bronchiectasis, an irreversible suppurative lung disease. However, both patients made an uneventful recovery without the need for artificial ventilation or convalescent plasma. Conclusion: Successful outcomes of patients with XLA and COVID-19, except for delayed recovery, from our experience and from global reports are intriguing and the role of B cell depletion is being studied as well. Further research and clinical experience are necessary to fully elucidate the reasons for these observations.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; X-linked agammaglobulinemia; primary immunodeficiency.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Agammaglobulinemia / complications*
  • COVID-19 / complications
  • COVID-19 / physiopathology*
  • COVID-19 / therapy
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / complications*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Young Adult

Supplementary concepts

  • Bruton type agammaglobulinemia