The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Self-care and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2021 Sep 7. doi: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000841. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Self-care is an integral component of successful chronic heart failure (HF) management. Structured educational programs have already been shown to be effective in improving self-care, but some patients show resistance and little motivation for change.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare efficacy in improving self-care and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for an educational intervention based on motivational interviewing (MI) compared with a conventional educational intervention.

Methods: This experimental pretest-posttest study with an equivalent historical control group included 93 patients in the intervention group and 93 matched patients in the control group. Participants attended a first visit after HF hospitalization discharge and 6 to 7 follow-up visits during 6 months. The European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior scale and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire were used to assess self-care and HRQoL, respectively. Data on mortality and hospital readmissions were collected as adverse events.

Results: Self-care improved significantly more in the MI-based intervention group than in the control group (P = .005). Although both self-care and HRQoL improved in both groups over time (P < .05), there was no significant between-group difference in terms of HRQoL improvement over time (P = .13).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that MI delivered by MI-trained nurses is effective in significantly improving self-care by patients with HF. Nonetheless, further studies are required to evaluate the impact of MI on other outcomes, such as HRQoL and adverse clinical events.