Clinico-genomic profiling and clonal dynamic modeling of TP53-aberrant myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia

Leuk Lymphoma. 2021 Dec;62(14):3348-3360. doi: 10.1080/10428194.2021.1957869. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Abstract

TP53-aberrant myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia have dismal outcomes. Here, we define the clinico-genomic landscape of TP53 disruptions in 40 patients and employ clonal dynamic modeling to map the mutational hierarchy against clinical outcomes. Most TP53 mutations (45.2%) localized to the L3 loop or LSH motif of the DNA-binding domain. TP53 disruptions had high co-occurrence with mutations in epigenetic regulators, spliceosome machinery, and cohesin complex and low co-occurrence with mutations in proliferative signaling genes. Ancestral and descendant TP53 mutations constituted measurable residual disease and fueled relapse. High mutant TP53 gene dosage predicted low durability of remission. The median overall survival (OS) was 280 days. Hypomethylating agent-based therapy served as an effective bridge to transplant, leading to improved median OS compared to patients who did not receive a transplant (14.7 vs. 5.1 months). OS was independent of the genomic location of TP53 disruption, which has implications for rational therapeutic design.

Keywords: Myelodysplastic syndrome; TP53; acute myeloid leukemia; clonal dynamics; hematopoietic stem cell; hypomethylating agents.