Impact of afterload and infiltration on coexisting aortic stenosis and transthyretin amyloidosis

Heart. 2022 Jan;108(1):67-72. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319922. Epub 2021 Sep 8.


Objective: The coexistence of wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR) is common in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However, the impact of ATTR and AS on the resultant AS-ATTR is unclear and poses diagnostic and management challenges. We therefore used a multicohort approach to evaluate myocardial structure, function, stress and damage by assessing age-related, afterload-related and amyloid-related remodelling on the resultant AS-ATTR phenotype.

Methods: We compared four samples (n=583): 359 patients with AS, 107 with ATTR (97% Perugini grade 2), 36 with AS-ATTR (92% Perugini grade 2) and 81 age-matched and ethnicity-matched controls. 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (DPD) scintigraphy was used to diagnose amyloidosis (Perugini grade 1 was excluded). The primary end-point was NT-pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and secondary end-points related to myocardial structure, function and damage.

Results: Compared with older age controls, the three disease cohorts had greater cardiac remodelling, worse function and elevated NT-proBNP/high-sensitivity Troponin-T (hsTnT). NT-proBNP was higher in AS-ATTR (2844 (1745, 4635) ng/dL) compared with AS (1294 (1077, 1554)ng/dL; p=0.002) and not significantly different to ATTR (3272 (2552, 4197) ng/dL; p=0.63). Diastology, hsTnT and prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome were statistically similar between AS-ATTR and ATTR and higher than AS. The left ventricular mass indexed in AS-ATTR was lower than ATTR (139 (112, 167) vs 180 (167, 194) g; p=0.013) and non-significantly different to AS (120 (109, 130) g; p=0.179).

Conclusions: The AS-ATTR phenotype likely reflects an early stage of amyloid infiltration, but the combined insult resembles ATTR. Even after treatment of AS, ATTR-specific therapy is therefore likely to be beneficial.

Keywords: aortic valve stenosis; cardiomyopathy; restrictive; transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial* / diagnosis
  • Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial* / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / complications
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / diagnosis
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement*

Supplementary concepts

  • Amyloidosis, Hereditary, Transthyretin-Related