Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics and the survival of CHEK2 mutation positive and CHEK2 mutation negative patients diagnosed with bladder or kidney cancer.
Materials and methods: 1016 patients with bladder and 402 cases with kidney cancer and 8302 controls were genotyped for four CHEK2 variants: 1100delC, del5395, IVS2+1G>A and I157T. Predictors of survival were determined among CHEK2 pathogenic variant carriers using the Cox proportional hazards model. The median follow-up was 17.5 years. Covariates included age (≤60; >61 years), sex (female; male), clinical characteristics (stage: TNM, grade, histopathological type), smoking status (non-smoking; smoking) and cancer family history (negative; positive).
Results: We found no impact of CHEK2 mutations on bladder or kidney cancer survival. However, we observed a possible increased survival in the subgroup of patients with stage T1 bladder cancer with CHEK2 mutations but this did not meet statistical significance (HR = 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-1.04; p = 0.055). Moreover, we observed that the missense mutations were more frequent in the low grade invasive bladder cancer patient group (OR = 7.9; 95% CI 1.50-42.1; p = 0.04) and in patients with bladder cancer with stage Ta (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.30-4.55; p = 0.006). The different results where missense mutations occurs less often we observed among patients with high grade invasive bladder cancer (OR = 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.66; p = 0.04) and those with stage T1 disease (OR = 0.2; 95% CI 0.07-0.76; p = 0.01). Our investigations revealed that any mutation in CHEK2 occurs more often among patients with stage Ta bladder cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.19-3.47; p = 0.01) and less often in patients with stage T1 disease (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.12-0.78; p = 0.01). In the kidney cancer patients, truncating mutations were present more often in the group with clear cell carcinoma GII (OR = 8.0; 95% CI 0.95-67.7; p = 0.05). The 10-year survival for all CHEK2 mutation carriers with bladder cancer was 33% and for non-carriers 11% (p = 0.15). The 10-year survival for CHEK2 mutation carriers with kidney cancer 34% and for non-carriers 20% (p = 0.5).
Conclusion: CHEK2 mutations were not associated with any change in bladder or kidney cancer survival regardless of their age, sex, smoking status and family history. We observed a potentially protective effect of CHEK2 mutations on survival for patients with stage T1 bladder cancer. CHEK2 missense mutations were more common among patients with low grade invasive bladder cancer and in patients with stage Ta diease. The frequencies of the I157T CHEK2 pathogenic variant were less in patients with high grade invasive bladder cancer and those with stage T1 disease. Among patients with bladder cancer with stage Ta disease, the OR for any mutation in CHEK2 was 2.0 but for those with stage T1 disease, the OR was 0.3. We observed truncating CHEK2 mutations were associated with kidney cancer patients with GII clear cell carcinoma.