Effects of Neurofeedback in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review

J Clin Med. 2021 Aug 25;10(17):3797. doi: 10.3390/jcm10173797.


Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and adolescence. Choosing the right treatment is critical to controlling and improving symptoms. An innovative ADHD treatment is neurofeedback (NF) that trains participants to self-regulate brain activity. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of NF interventions in children with ADHD. A systematic review was carried out in the CINAHL, Medline (PubMed), Proquest, and Scopus databases, following the PRISMA recommendations. Nine articles were found. The NF improved behavior, allowed greater control of impulsivity, and increased sustained attention. In addition, it improved motor control, bimanual coordination and was associated with a reduction in theta waves. NF combined with other interventions such as medication, physical activity, behavioral therapy training, or attention training with brain-computer interaction, reduced primary ADHD symptoms. Furthermore, more randomized controlled trials would be necessary to determine the significant effects.

Keywords: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; child; neurofeedback; treatment.

Publication types

  • Review