Intermittent bladder catheterization (IBC) involves regular urine draining using a catheter, which is removed immediately after urinary elimination. It allows for the patient's urological health to be managed and their renal function to be preserved, and it promotes autonomy. Compliance with the prescribed number of daily catheterizations, which must be conducted by the patient, and infection prevention measures are crucial. To identify the patients requiring IBC, and to determine their adherence (whether they followed the prescribed guidelines and their difficulty in carrying out the procedure, as well as to assess how the IBC influences their quality of life and state of mind after receiving self-care training from a specialized nurse), we carried out a prospective, multicenter observational study in 24 Spanish hospitals with one month of monitoring and a sample of 99 patients. The sources of information were the patients' clinical records, the King's Health Questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to analyses the paired data. After recruitment (n = 99), 79 patients completed the questionnaire at a mean age of 35.2 years (SD = 20.5 years). In total, 53.5% (53) of the sample consisted of men and 32.3% (32) had neurological damage as the reason for prescription; 67% (67.7) performed self-catheterization and 86.7% adhered to the IBC. After one month of monitoring, a statistically significant improvement in quality of life was observed in all criteria, with the exception of personal relationships (p < 0.005), as well as an improvement in anxiety and depression levels (p < 0.001). Patients who require IBC show good adherence to the IBC with a significant percentage of self-catheterization. After one month of IBC, a significant improvement in the patients' quality of life and mood was observed. These results could be attributed to adequate patient training and adequate personalization of the IBC materials by the specialized nurses.
Keywords: adherence; intermittent bladder catheterization; risk factors; self-care.