Drug-Drug Interaction between Tacrolimus and Vonoprazan in Kidney Transplant Recipients

J Clin Med. 2021 Aug 31;10(17):3964. doi: 10.3390/jcm10173964.


Kidney transplant recipients with tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive therapy are often treated with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) to prevent gastric ulcer complications. Vonoprazan, a potassium-competitive acid blocker, is a novel PPI possessing different metabolic pathways from conventional PPIs (e.g., omeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole). However, no data are available on the change in blood concentration of tacrolimus after switching rabeprazole, a conventional PPI, to vonoprazan coadministration in the initial period of post-transplantation. This is a retrospective study of 18 kidney transplant recipients. The blood concentration and the concentration to dose (C/D) ratio of tacrolimus were compared before and after switching from rabeprazole to vonoprazan. Impacts of CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms on the drug-drug interaction were also examined. The median (range) trough concentration of tacrolimus was significantly increased from 5.2 (3.6-7.4) to 8.1 (6.1-11.7) ng/mL (p < 0.0005) after switching from rabeprazole to vonoprazan. The C/D ratio of tacrolimus was also significantly increased from 38.1 (16.5-138.1) to 48.9 (26.2-207.2) (p < 0.0005). The percent changes of tacrolimus concentrations and C/D were 65.8% and 41.8%, respectively. CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms did not affect the change in concentration and C/D ratio of tacrolimus. The present study indicates that vonoprazan coadministration increases the tacrolimus concentration regardless of CYP2C19 or CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms. Thus, frequent monitoring of blood tacrolimus concentration is required when vonoprazan is introduced as an intensive gastric acid blocker in the early phase of post-transplantation.

Keywords: drug–drug interaction; gene polymorphism; kidney transplantation; tacrolimus; vonoprazan.