Macrothrombocytopenia of Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome is ameliorated by CDC42 specific- and lipidation inhibitors in MEG-01 cells

Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 9;11(1):17990. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-97478-y.


Macrothrombocytopenia is a common pathology of missense mutations in genes regulating actin dynamics. Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome (TKS) harboring the c.191A > G, Tyr64Cys (Y64C) variant in Cdc42 exhibits a variety of clinical manifestations, including immunological and hematological anomalies. In the present study, we investigated the functional abnormalities of the Y64C mutant in HEK293 cells and elucidated the mechanism of macrothrombocytopenia, one of the symptoms of TKS patients, by monitoring the production of platelet-like particles (PLP) using MEG-01 cells. We found that the Y64C mutant was concentrated at the membrane compartment due to impaired binding to Rho-GDI and more active than the wild-type. The Y64C mutant also had lower association with its effectors Pak1/2 and N-WASP. Y64C mutant-expressing MEG-01 cells demonstrated short cytoplasmic protrusions with aberrant F-actin and microtubules, and reduced PLP production. This suggested that the Y64C mutant facilitates its activity and membrane localization, resulting in impaired F-actin dynamics for proplatelet extension, which is necessary for platelet production. Furthermore, such dysfunction was ameliorated by either suppression of Cdc42 activity or prenylation using chemical inhibitors. Our study may lead to pharmacological treatments for TKS patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Actins / metabolism
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Benzamides / pharmacology
  • Blood Platelets / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Megakaryocytes / drug effects*
  • Megakaryocytes / metabolism*
  • Mutation
  • Protein Prenylation / drug effects
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacology
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects*
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Sulfonamides / pharmacology
  • Syndrome
  • Thrombocytopenia / genetics
  • Thrombocytopenia / metabolism*
  • Thrombopoiesis / drug effects
  • Thrombopoiesis / genetics
  • Transfection
  • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal / metabolism
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / genetics
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism*
  • p21-Activated Kinases / metabolism
  • rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor alpha / metabolism


  • ARHGDIA protein, human
  • Actins
  • Benzamides
  • CID2950007
  • GGTI 298
  • Pyrazoles
  • Sulfonamides
  • WASL protein, human
  • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal
  • rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor alpha
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases
  • geranylgeranyltransferase type-I
  • PAK1 protein, human
  • PAK2 protein, human
  • p21-Activated Kinases
  • CDC42 protein, human
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein