Calvarial doughnut lesions with bone fragility in a French-Canadian family; case report and review of the literature

Bone Rep. 2021 Aug 25;15:101121. doi: 10.1016/j.bonr.2021.101121. eCollection 2021 Dec.

Abstract

Calvarial Doughnut Lesions with Bone Fragility (CDL) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease, characterized by low bone mineral density, multiple fractures starting in childhood, and sclerotic doughnut-shaped lesions in the cranial bones. Aubé and colleagues described in 1988 a French-Canadian family of 12 affected members who had a clinical diagnosis of doughnut lesions of the skull, with pathological fractures, osteopenia, "bone in bone" in the vertebral bodies and squaring of metatarsal and metacarpal bones. Herein we study new members of this family. Sequential genetic testing identified a nonsense variant c.148C>T, p. Arg50 in SGMS2 previously reported in other families. SGMS2 encodes Sphingomyelin Synthase 2, which produces Sphingomyelin (SM), a major lipid component of the plasma membrane that plays a role in bone mineralization. The nonsense variant is associated with milder phenotype. The proband presents with bone in bone vertebral appearance that had been defined uniquely in the first cases described in the same family. The proband's son was identified to carry the same variant, which makes him the sixth generation with the diagnosis of CDL. We also report that the same pathogenic variant was identified in another previously described family, from France. These reports further confirm the genetic basis of CDL, the recurrence of the same variant (p.Arg50*) in individuals of the same ancestry, and the variable penetrance of some of the clinical findings.

Keywords: Bone fragility; Calvarial doughnut lesions with bone fragility; SGMS2; Skeletal dysplasia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports