Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not associated with increased risk of Clostridioides difficile infection: A propensity-score-matched case-control study

Anaerobe. 2021 Dec:72:102444. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2021.102444. Epub 2021 Sep 22.


Prior research identified an increased risk for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) following exposure to certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We conducted a retrospective case-control study to evaluate the risk for CDI associated with NSAID use. NSAID use was not associated with an increased risk of CDI.

Keywords: Clostridioides difficile; NSAID; Propensity score; Risk factors.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Clostridium
  • Clostridium Infections / epidemiology*
  • Clostridium Infections / etiology*
  • Disease Susceptibility*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Propensity Score
  • Public Health Surveillance
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal