Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia characterized by the progressive cognitive and social decline. Clinical drug targets have heavily focused on the amyloid hypothesis, with amyloid beta (Aβ), and tau proteins as key pathophysiologic markers of AD. However, no effective treatment has been developed so far, which prompts researchers to focus on other aspects of AD beyond Aβ, and tau proteins. Additionally, there is a mounting epidemiologic evidence that various environmental factors influence the development of dementia and that dementia etiology is likely heterogenous. In the past decades, new risk factors or potential etiologies have been widely studied. Here, we review several novel epidemiologic and clinical research developments that focus on sleep, hypoxia, diet, gut microbiota, and hearing impairment and their links to AD published in recent years. At the frontiers of AD research, these findings and updates could be worthy of further attention.
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