Autoimmunity roots of the thrombotic events after COVID-19 vaccination

Autoimmun Rev. 2021 Nov;20(11):102941. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2021.102941. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Abstract

Although vaccination represents the most promising way to stop or contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and safety and effectiveness of available vaccines were proven, a small number of individuals who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines developed a prothrombotic syndrome. Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) can be triggered by the adenoviral vector-based vaccine, whereas lipid nanoparticle-mRNA-based vaccines can induce rare cases of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Although the main pathogenic mechanisms behind this rare phenomenon have not yet been identified, both host and vaccine factors might be involved, with pathology at least in part being related to the vaccine-triggered autoimmune reaction. In this review, we are considering some aspects related to pathogenesis, major risk factors, as well as peculiarities of diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition.

Keywords: Adenoviral vector-based vaccine; Autoimmune reaction; COVID-19; Lipid nanoparticle-mRNA-based vaccine; Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoimmunity
  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19*
  • Humans
  • SARS Virus*
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vaccination / adverse effects
  • Viral Vaccines*

Substances

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Viral Vaccines