Objectives: We describe retention in care, medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) prescribing, and urine toxicology outcomes of a comprehensive perinatal shared medical appointment model that combined medication, group-based counseling, and recovery supports.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of program retention between 11/1/16 and 3/31/20 in pregnant and postpartum women with substance dependence or use disorder. Disengagement reasons, MOUD prescribing, and urine toxicology were abstracted from medical records. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate risk factors for program disengagement.
Results: Approximately 87% of patients had OUD and 80% were pregnant at the initial visit (N = 140). Retention at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years was approximately 86%, 78%, 66%, and 48%, respectively. Over 97% of patients were prescribed MOUD and 88% of all urine toxicology results were negative for non-prescribed opioids. Patients enrolled after initiation of wraparound services (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28 - 0.96) and those attending more shared medical appointments (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 - 0.93) had a lower hazard of disengagement after controlling for other covariates. Loss to follow-up was the most common disengagement reason.
Conclusions: A low-threshold, comprehensive perinatal shared medical appointment program had high retention rates, increased access to evidence-based MOUD, and high rates of opioid-negative urine toxicology. Participants enrolled after wraparound services began had a lower hazard of disengagement. Future research in perinatal substance use should evaluate the most optimal and cost-effective components of comprehensive programs to inform standard of care.
Copyright © 2022 American Society of Addiction Medicine.