Global burden for dengue and the evolving pattern in the past 30 years

J Travel Med. 2021 Sep 11;taab146. doi: 10.1093/jtm/taab146. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Dengue is the most prevalent and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease. We present the global, regional, and national burden of dengue from 1990 to 2019 based on the findings from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injures, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019).

Methods: Based upon GBD 2019 dengue data on age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), age-standardized death rate (ASDR) and age-standardized disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) rate, this study estimates and presents annual percentage change (EAPC) to quantify trends over time to assess potential correlates of increased dengue activity such as global travel, and warming.

Results: Globally from 1990 to 2019, dengue incident cases, deaths and DALYs gradually increased. Those under 5, once accounting for the largest portion of deaths and DALYs in 1990, were eclipsed by those 15-49 years old in 2019. Age standardized incidence (ASIR: EAPC 3.16, 95%CI: 2.90-3.43), death (ASDR: EAPC 5.42, 95%CI: 2.64-8.28), and DALY rates (EAPC 2.31, 95%CI: 2.00-2.62) accelerated most among high-middle and high socio-demographic index (SDI) regions. Southeast Asia and South Asia had most of the dengue incident cases, deaths and DALYs, but East Asia had the fastest rise in ASIR (EAPC 4.57, 95%CI: 4.31, 4.82), while Tropical Latin America led in ASDR (EAPC 11.32, 95%CI: 9.11, 13.58) and age-standardized DALYs rate (EAPC 4.13, 95%CI: 2.98, 5.29). SDI showed consistent bell shape relationship with ASIR, ASDR and age-standardized DALYs rate. Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index and air passenger travel metrics were found to be remarkably positively correlated with dengue burden.

Conclusions: The burden of dengue has become heavier from 1990 to 2019, amidst the three decades of urbanization, warming climates and increased human mobility in much of the world. Southeast Asia and South Asia remain regions of concern, especially in conjunction with the Americas swift rise in dengue burden.

Keywords: Age-standardized DALYs rate; Age-standardized death rate; Age-standardized incidence rate; Dengue; Global Burden of Disease.