Assessment of major food crops production-based environmental efficiency in China, India, and Pakistan

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Feb;29(7):10091-10100. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-16161-x. Epub 2021 Sep 12.


Global warming and food security have led to increasing concern about agricultural crop production efficiency, especially wheat and rice farming. The purpose of the current study is to measure wheat and rice production efficiency scores with environmental quality in China, India, and Pakistan by using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. The DEA results show that China and India are more efficient in wheat and rice production but it is not efficient in the environment in the study period. The results also show that Pakistan has also relatively small wheat and rice efficiency compared with China and India and increased the efficiency with the passage of time. The practical outcomes also show that Pakistan has the most efficient and effective states from the periods 2008 to 2019 in terms of wheat and rice efficiency and also a small increase in carbon emission. Based on the findings, policymakers should pay attention to the role of green technology in reducing agricultural CO2 emissions.

Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; Environmental pollution; Wheat and rice efficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture
  • China
  • Crops, Agricultural*
  • India
  • Oryza*
  • Pakistan
  • Triticum