Impact of chronic gingivitis management on the cytokine and anti-PPAD expressions in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: A six-month follow-up

J Periodontal Res. 2021 Sep 12. doi: 10.1111/jre.12924. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate how chronic gingivitis treatment impacts the oral and circulating cytokine expressions after six-month follow-up in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE) and also to evaluate the circulating expression of anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase antibodies (anti-PPAD) before and after treatment.

Background: Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients present a worse periodontal condition associated with higher gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon-γ and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1.

Materials and methods: Twenty-one adolescents with jSLE (mean age: 16.2 ± 1.5 years) were recruited. Participants were rheumatologically and periodontally examined. All individuals were clinically diagnosed with gingival inflammation. Chronic gingivitis treatment consisted of supragingival scaling, prophylaxis and oral hygiene instructions. The cytokine levels were determined by bead-based multiplex assays and the anti-PPAD levels by ELISA. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum samples were collected at baseline and 6 months after treatment.

Results: We observed a reduction in attachment loss, SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), IL-1β, IL-10 and MCP-1 GCF levels, and the IL-4 and IL-5 serum levels 6 months after periodontal treatment. On the contrary, a significant increase in GCF expression of IL-4, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ and serum levels of anti-PPAD antibody was observed.

Conclusion: Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients seem to positively benefit from periodontal treatment by a significantly reduced CAL, a GCF reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increasing of anti-inflammatory ones. However, an increase in the GCF expression of IL-17 and the serum expression of anti-PPAD antibody 6 months after periodontal treatment might negatively affect the treatment outcome of such patients in the long term.

Keywords: PPAD; cytokines; gingivitis; juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus; periodontal disease; periodontal treatment.