Background: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) independently impacts aging-related health outcomes and plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, there are limited predictive data on all-cause mortality, especially for the Japanese community population. In this study, it was examined whether LDL-C is related to survival prognosis based on 7 or 10 years of follow-up.
Methods: Participants included 1610 men (63 ± 14 years old) and 2074 women (65 ± 12 years old) who participated in the Nomura cohort study conducted in 2002 (first cohort) and 2014 (second cohort) and who continued throughout the follow-up periods (follow-up rates: 94.8 and 98.0%). Adjusted relative risk estimates were obtained for all-cause mortality using a basic resident register. The data were analyzed by a Cox regression with the time variable defined as the length between the age at the time of recruitment and that at the end of the study (the age of death or censoring), and risk factors including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), presence of diabetes, lipid levels, renal function, serum uric acid levels, blood pressure, and history of smoking, drinking, and CVD.
Results: Of the 3684 participants, 326 (8.8%) were confirmed to be deceased. Of these, 180 were men (11.2% of all men) and 146 were women (7.0% of all women). Lower LDL-C levels, gender (male), older age, BMI under 18.5 kg/m2, and the presence of diabetes were significant predictors for all-cause mortality. Compared with individuals with LDL-C levels of 144 mg/dL or higher, the multivariable-adjusted Hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality was 2.54 (1.58-4.07) for those with LDL-C levels below 70 mg/dL, 1.71 (1.15-2.54) for those with LDL-C levels between 70 mg/dL and 92 mg/dL, and 1.21 (0.87-1.68) for those with LDL-C levels between 93 mg/dL and 143 mg/dL. This association was particularly significant among participants who were male (P for interaction = 0.039) and had CKD (P for interaction = 0.015).
Conclusions: There is an inverse relationship between LDL-C levels and the risk of all-cause mortality, and this association is statistically significant.
Keywords: All-cause mortality; Cohort study; Community-dwelling persons; Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
© 2021. The Author(s).