Introduction: Despite the growing efforts to standardize coding for social determinants of health (SDOH), they are infrequently captured in electronic health records (EHRs). Most SDOH variables are still captured in the unstructured fields (i.e., free-text) of EHRs. In this study we attempt to evaluate a practical text mining approach (i.e., advanced pattern matching techniques) in identifying phrases referring to housing issues, an important SDOH domain affecting value-based healthcare providers, using EHR of a large multispecialty medical group in the New England region, United States. To present how this approach would help the health systems to address the SDOH challenges of their patients we assess the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without housing issues and briefly look into the patterns of healthcare utilization among the study population and for those with and without housing challenges. Methods: We identified five categories of housing issues [i.e., homelessness current (HC), homelessness history (HH), homelessness addressed (HA), housing instability (HI), and building quality (BQ)] and developed several phrases addressing each one through collaboration with SDOH experts, consulting the literature, and reviewing existing coding standards. We developed pattern-matching algorithms (i.e., advanced regular expressions), and then applied them in the selected EHR. We assessed the text mining approach for recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) after comparing the identified phrases with manually annotated free-text for different housing issues. Results: The study dataset included EHR structured data for a total of 20,342 patients and 2,564,344 free-text clinical notes. The mean (SD) age in the study population was 75.96 (7.51). Additionally, 58.78% of the cohort were female. BQ and HI were the most frequent housing issues documented in EHR free-text notes and HH was the least frequent one. The regular expression methodology, when compared to manual annotation, had a high level of precision (positive predictive value) at phrase, note, and patient levels (96.36, 95.00, and 94.44%, respectively) across different categories of housing issues, but the recall (sensitivity) rate was relatively low (30.11, 32.20, and 41.46%, respectively). Conclusion: Results of this study can be used to advance the research in this domain, to assess the potential value of EHR's free-text in identifying patients with a high risk of housing issues, to improve patient care and outcomes, and to eventually mitigate socioeconomic disparities across individuals and communities.
Keywords: clinical notes; electronic health record; free-text; housing; natural language processing; social determinants of health.
Copyright © 2021 Hatef, Singh Deol, Rouhizadeh, Li, Eibensteiner, Monsen, Bratslaver, Senese and Kharrazi.