CD155: A Key Receptor Playing Diversified Roles

Curr Mol Med. 2022;22(7):594-607. doi: 10.2174/1566524021666210910112906.


Cluster of differentiation (CD155), formerly identified as poliovirus receptor (PVR) and later as immunoglobulin molecule, is involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, invasion and migration. It is a surface protein expressed mostly on normal and transformed malignant cells. The expression of the receptor varies based on the origin of tissue. The expression of the protein is determined by factors involved in the sonic hedgehog pathway, Ras-MEK-ERK pathway and during stressful conditions like DNA damage response. The protein uses an alternate splicing mechanism, producing four isoforms, two being soluble (CD155β and CD155γ) and two being transmembrane protein (CD155α and CD155δ). Apart from being a viral receptor, researchers have identified CD155 to play important roles in cancer research and the cell signaling field. The receptor is recognized as a biomarker for identifying cancerous tissue. The receptor interacts with molecules involved in the cells' defense mechanism. The immunesurveillance role of CD155 is being deciphered to understand the mechanistic approach it utilizes as an onco-immunologic molecule. CD155 is a non-MHC-I ligand which helps in identifying non-self to NK cells via an inhibitory TIGIT ligand. The TIGIT-CD155 pathway is a novel MHC-I-independent education mechanism for cell tolerance and activation of NK cells. The receptor also has a role in metastasis of cancer and transendothelial mechanism. In this review, the authors discuss the virus-host interaction that occurs via a single transmembrane receptor, the poliovirus infection pathway, which is being exploited as a therapeutic pathway. The oncolytic virotherapy is now a promising modality for curing cancer.

Keywords: CD155; PDGFR; PVR; VEGFR; cancer; poliovirus.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Hedgehog Proteins*
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Receptors, Immunologic / metabolism
  • Receptors, Virus / genetics
  • Receptors, Virus / metabolism


  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Ligands
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Virus
  • poliovirus receptor