Compendium of causative genes and their encoded proteins for common monogenic disorders

Protein Sci. 2021 Sep 13. doi: 10.1002/pro.4183. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

A compendium is presented of inherited monogenic disorders that have a prevalence of >1:20,000 in the human population, along with their causative genes and encoded proteins. "Simple" monogenic diseases are those for which the clinical features are caused by mutations impacting a single gene, usually in a manner that alters the sequence of the encoded protein. Of course, for a given "monogenic disorder", there is sometimes more than one potential disease gene, mutations in any one of which is sufficient to cause phenotypes of that disorder. Disease-causing mutations for monogenic disorders are usually passed on from generation to generation in a Mendelian fashion, and originate from spontaneous (de novo) germline founder mutations. In the past monogenic disorders have often been written off as targets for drug discovery because they sometimes are assumed to be rare disorders, for which the meager projected financial payoff of drug discovery and development has discouraged investment. However, not all monogenic diseases are rare. Here, we report that that currently available data identifies 72 disorders with a prevalence of at least 1 in 20,000 humans. For each, we tabulate the gene(s) for which mutations cause the spectrum of phenotypes associated with that disorder. We also identify the gene and protein that most commonly causes each disease. 34 of these disorders are caused exclusively by mutations in only a single gene and encoded protein.

Keywords: Mendelian; diseases; disorders; genes; genetic; inherited; monogenic; mutations; proteins; rare.