Anal Fissure - an extensive update

Pol Przegl Chir. 2021 Mar 12;93(4):46-56. doi: 10.5604/01.3001.0014.7879.


Anal fissure is one of the most common anorectal diseases resulting from a longitudinal tear in anoderm under the dentate line. It causes painful defecation and bleeding per anum. Most of the fissures heal by conservative means but a significant proportion turns chronic, leading to a negative impact upon the overall quality of life of a patient. The treatment options for chronic fissures are generally based on reducing the anal pressures and include non-surgical and surgical modalities. Lateral internal sphincterotomy still remains the gold standard for definitive management of anal fissure though anal incontinence is a serious complication of the procedure. In recent years, various modifications have evolved to minimize chances of incontinence besides the evolution of a wide range of non-surgical options of management. This review outlines the key points in the clinical presentation, etiopathogenesis, impact on the quality of life and management of anal fissure in the light of the recent updates in literature.

Keywords: anal continence; anal fissure; fissure-in-ano; fissurectomy; internal sphincter hypertonia; sphincterotomy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anal Canal
  • Chronic Disease
  • Fecal Incontinence*
  • Fissure in Ano* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Quality of Life
  • Treatment Outcome