Objective: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a major obstacle for cervical cancer survivors, preventing the return to their social life. This study assessed the prevalence of CRCI in cervical cancer survivors and studied the association of self-reported cognitive impairment with treatment regimen and the quality of life (QoL) domains depression, anxiety, and fatigue.
Methods: Six hundred twenty one cervical cancer survivors, treated with combined chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) (n = 458) or surgery only (n = 163) were invited in this cross-sectional study. Self-reported cognitive function was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog). Fatigue and psychological distress were assessed using EORTC-QLQ C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
Results: Data of 254 women (40.9%) was available for the analysis. Of those, 204 (80.3%) women had received CCRT and 50 (19.7%) surgery only. In the whole cohort, 42.5% reported significant cognitive impairment. In both treatment groups cognitive complaints were significantly associated with anxiety, depression, and fatigue (all p < 0.001). CCRT was strongly associated with increased risk of CRCI (OR = 4.02, 95% CI = 1.57-10.25). Anxiety, depression, and fatigue increased the risk of CRCI by 13% (OR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.23), 16% (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.28) and 2% (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03), respectively.
Conclusion: Almost half of the cervical cancer survivors after CCRT report significant cognitive impairment. CRCI is associated with other indicators of poor QoL, such as depression, anxiety and fatigue. An increased understanding of the specific cognitive domains affected and of the associated late effects like fatigue is crucial to customize successful interventions.
Keywords: cancer; cervical cancer survivors; cognitive impairment; fatigue; gynecological cancer; oncology; psycho-oncology; psychological distress.
© 2021 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.