Trans-lesional fractional flow reserve gradient as derived from coronary CT improves patient management: ADVANCE registry

J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2022 Jan-Feb;16(1):19-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jcct.2021.08.003. Epub 2021 Sep 2.


Background: The role of change in fractional flow reserve derived from CT (FFRCT) across coronary stenoses (ΔFFRCT) in guiding downstream testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the incremental value of ΔFFRCT in predicting early revascularization and improving efficiency of catheter laboratory utilization.

Materials: Patients with CAD on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) were enrolled in an international multicenter registry. Stenosis severity was assessed as per CAD-Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS), and lesion-specific FFRCT was measured 2 ​cm distal to stenosis. ΔFFRCT was manually measured as the difference of FFRCT across visible stenosis.

Results: Of 4730 patients (66 ​± ​10 years; 34% female), 42.7% underwent ICA and 24.7% underwent early revascularization. ΔFFRCT remained an independent predictor for early revascularization (odds ratio per 0.05 increase [95% confidence interval], 1.31 [1.26-1.35]; p ​< ​0.001) after adjusting for risk factors, stenosis features, and lesion-specific FFRCT. Among the 3 models (model 1: risk factors ​+ ​stenosis type and location ​+ ​CAD-RADS; model 2: model 1 ​+ ​FFRCT; model 3: model 2 ​+ ​ΔFFRCT), model 3 improved discrimination compared to model 2 (area under the curve, 0.87 [0.86-0.88] vs 0.85 [0.84-0.86]; p ​< ​0.001), with the greatest incremental value for FFRCT 0.71-0.80. ΔFFRCT of 0.13 was the optimal cut-off as determined by the Youden index. In patients with CAD-RADS ≥3 and lesion-specific FFRCT ≤0.8, a diagnostic strategy incorporating ΔFFRCT >0.13, would potentially reduce ICA by 32.2% (1638-1110, p ​< ​0.001) and improve the revascularization to ICA ratio from 65.2% to 73.1%.

Conclusions: ΔFFRCT improves the discrimination of patients who underwent early revascularization compared to a standard diagnostic strategy of CCTA with FFRCT, particularly for those with FFRCT 0.71-0.80. ΔFFRCT has the potential to aid decision-making for ICA referral and improve efficiency of catheter laboratory utilization.

Keywords: Coronary artery disease (CAD); Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA); Fractional flow reserve (FFR); Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary computed tomography (FFR(CT)).

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Computed Tomography Angiography
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / therapy
  • Coronary Stenosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Stenosis* / therapy
  • Coronary Vessels / diagnostic imaging
  • Female
  • Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Registries
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed