Immune-mediated inflammatory disease therapeutics: past, present and future

Nat Rev Immunol. 2021 Oct;21(10):680-686. doi: 10.1038/s41577-021-00603-1. Epub 2021 Sep 13.


Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases are common and clinically diverse. Although they are currently incurable, the therapeutic armamentarium for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases has been transformed in the past two decades. We have moved from the wide application of broad-spectrum immune modulators to the routine use of agents with exquisite specificity, arising from monoclonal and molecular biotechnology and more recently from highly targeted medicinal chemistry. Here we describe key advances and lessons that drove this remarkable progress and thereafter reflect on the next steps in this ongoing journey.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / therapy*
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy / trends*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal