Update on the pathogenesis and treatment of skeletal fragility in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2021 Nov;17(11):685-697. doi: 10.1038/s41574-021-00555-5. Epub 2021 Sep 13.


Fracture risk is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, these patients sustain fractures despite having higher levels of areal bone mineral density, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, than individuals without T2DM. Thus, additional factors such as alterations in bone quality could have important roles in mediating skeletal fragility in patients with T2DM. Although the pathogenesis of increased fracture risk in T2DM is multifactorial, impairments in bone material properties and increases in cortical porosity have emerged as two key skeletal abnormalities that contribute to skeletal fragility in patients with T2DM. In addition, indices of bone formation are uniformly reduced in patients with T2DM, with evidence from mouse studies published over the past few years linking this abnormality to accelerated skeletal ageing, specifically cellular senescence. In this Review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of skeletal fragility in patients with T2DM and suggest potential novel therapeutic approaches to address this problem.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Animals
  • Bone Density
  • Bone and Bones / pathology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Fractures, Bone / epidemiology
  • Fractures, Bone / etiology
  • Fractures, Bone / pathology*
  • Fractures, Bone / therapy*
  • Humans