The Impact of Bariatric Surgery Versus Non-Surgical Treatment on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Obes Surg. 2021 Sep 14. doi: 10.1007/s11695-021-05671-9. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment on blood pressure for patients with obesity. Nineteen RCTs (1353 total patients) were included. In the pooled analyses, bariatric surgery reduces more systolic blood pressure (WMD: - 3.937 mmHg, CI95%: - 6.000 to - 1.875, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%), diastolic blood pressure (WMD: - 2.690 mmHg, CI95%: - 3.994 to - 1.385, P < 0.001, I2 = 0%) and more antihypertensives. In subgroup analyses, patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, with poor control of hypertension (BP > 130/80 mmHg) and diabetes mellitus (HbA1C > 7.0%, FPG > 7.0 mmol/L), elder patients (> 45 years), non-severe obesity (BMI < 40 kg/cm2, body weight < 120 kg), less waist circumference (< 115 cm) tend to decrease more blood pressure. Besides, patients after surgery also lost more weight (p < 0.001), decreased more waist circumference (p < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (p < 0.001), glycosylated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), hsCRP (p = 0.001), increased more high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001), and had better remission of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.001). Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, renal function, resting heart rate, and 6-min walking test were not significantly different. Therefore, bariatric surgery is more effective than non-surgical treatment in controlling patients' blood pressure.

Keywords: Bariatric surgery is a more effective way of controlling patients' blood pressure; LAGB has no advantage in blood pressure control compared to non-surgical treatment; RYGB has the most certain efficacy on blood pressure reduction among all surgeries.

Publication types

  • Review