Adenomyosis: An update regarding its diagnosis and clinical features

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod. 2021 Dec;50(10):102228. doi: 10.1016/j.jogoh.2021.102228. Epub 2021 Sep 11.


Adenomyosis is a common gynecologic disease characterized by invasion of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. Clinically, it can result in abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility. Adenomyosis has historically been diagnosed by histology of hysterectomy specimens. As a result of the development of imaging techniques, the diagnosis is nowadays possible by means of transvaginal pelvic ultrasound or pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. The use of pelvic imaging has demonstrated the existence of different forms of adenomyosis, notably allowing distinction between lesions of the external myometrium and those of the internal myometrium. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics may depend on the anatomical location of the adenomyosis lesions. In order to provide the best management for women with adenomyosis, the objective of this review is to provide an update regarding the diagnosis of adenomyosis and its clinical features according to the different adenomyosis phenotypes.

Keywords: Adenomyosis; Clinical; Diagnosis; Endometrium; Myometrium.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenomyosis / diagnosis*
  • Adenomyosis / physiopathology
  • Adenomyosis / therapy*
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infertility, Female / etiology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Prevalence
  • Ultrasonography / methods