Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease. Although the impact of immune cell disorder in MG has been extensively studied, little is known about the transcriptomes of individual cells. Here, we assessed the transcriptional profiles of 39,243 cells by single-cell sequencing and identified 13 major cell clusters, along with 39 subgroups of cells derived from patients with new-onset myasthenia gravis and healthy controls. We found that B cells, CD4+ T cells, and monocytes exhibited more heterogeneity in MG patients. CD4+ T cells were expanded in MG patients. We reclustered B cells and CD4+ T cells, and predict their essential regulators. Further analyses demonstrated that B cells in MG exhibited higher transcriptional activity towards plasma cell differentiation, CD4+ T cell subsets were unbalanced, and inflammatory pathways of monocytes were highly activated. Notably, we discovered a disease-relevant subgroup, CD180- B cells. Increased CD180- B cells in MG are indicative of a high IgG composition and were associated with disease activity and the anti-AChR antibody. Together, our data further the understanding of the cellular heterogeneity involved in the pathogenesis of MG and provide large cell-type-specific markers for subsequent research.
© 2021. The Author(s).