Tumor classifications based on alterations in the genome, epigenome, or proteome have revealed distinct tumor subgroups that are associated with clinical outcomes. Several landmark studies have demonstrated that such classifications can significantly improve patient outcomes by enabling tailoring of therapy to specific alterations in cancer cells. Since cancer cells accumulate numerous alterations in many cancer-related genes, it is a daunting task to find and confirm important cancer-promoting alterations as therapeutic targets or biomarkers that can predict clinical outcomes such as survival and response to treatments. To aid further advances, we provide here an overview of the current understanding of molecular and genomic subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). System-level integration of data from multiple studies and development of new technical platforms for analyzing patient samples hold great promise for the discovery of new targets for treatment and correlated biomarkers, leading to personalized medicine for treatment of HCC patients.
Keywords: RNA-seq; gene expression profile; genomic subtypes; mutations; proteomics.
© 2021 Yim and Lee.