Use of connected pen as a diagnostic tool to evaluate missed bolus dosing behavior in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2021 Sep 15. doi: 10.1089/dia.2021.0239. Online ahead of print.


Objective: This study used connected pen to determine missed bolus dose (MBD) frequency during masked and unmasked continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) periods and examined its link with time-in-range (TIR), time-above-range (TAR), time-below-range (TBR), and key participant characteristics in people with diabetes.

Methods: This was a 12-week, single-arm, exploratory, 2-period study for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). The primary objective was to estimate the average number of MBD during masked and real-time CGM use. The secondary objective was to estimate the average percent TIR and its relationship to MBD. An exploratory objective was to investigate the participant characteristics that were associated with MBD. Data were analyzed for differences in MBD by diabetes type and other participant characteristics, by CGM period, and by hypoglycemic fear scores.

Results: Participants (n=64; T1D, n=38; T2D, n=26) were 48 ± 11.9 years old and 44% were female. From the masked to the unmasked period, MBD, %TAR, %TBR, and HbA1c decreased significantly (0.74 MBD/day to 0.62 MBD/day, p=0.008; 53.6% to 48.1%, p=0.004; 4.49% to 2.93%, p<0.001; mean 8.8% to 8.4%, p<0.001, respectively), while %TIR increased significantly (41.9% to 49.0%, p<0.001). MBD/day was negatively associated with TIR (p=0.016) and positively associated with TAR (p=0.015) for T1D and positively associated with TBR (p=0.024) for T2D in the masked period only. MBD was significantly associated with fear of hypoglycemia for T2D, but not T1D.

Conclusions: MBD is associated with reduced TIR when CGM is masked and tailored therapeutic approaches are needed for T1D and T2D populations.