Background: Approximately 20% of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is negative for the lineage-specific oncogene Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and exhibits worse clinical outcome with a low frequency of actionable genomic alterations. To identify molecular features associated with TTF-1-negative LUAD, we compared the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of LUAD cell lines. SRGN , a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan Serglycin, was identified as a markedly overexpressed gene in TTF-1-negative LUAD. We therefore investigated the roles and regulation of SRGN in TTF-1-negative LUAD.
Methods: Proteomic and metabolomic analyses of 41 LUAD cell lines were done using mass spectrometry. The function of SRGN was investigated in 3 TTF-1-negative and 4 TTF-1-positive LUAD cell lines and in a syngeneic mouse model (n = 5 to 8 mice per group). Expression of SRGN was evaluated in 94 and 105 surgically resected LUAD tumor specimens using immunohistochemistry. All statistical tests were 2-sided.
Results: SRGN was markedly overexpressed at mRNA and protein levels in TTF-1-negative LUAD cell lines (P < .001 for both mRNA and protein levels). Expression of SRGN in LUAD tumor tissue was associated with poor outcome (hazard ratio = 4.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.12 to 15.86, likelihood ratio test, P = .03), and with higher expression of Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells and higher infiltration of Programmed cell death protein 1-positive lymphocytes. SRGN regulated expression of PD-L1 as well as proinflammatory cytokines, including Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, and C-X-C motif chemokine 1 in LUAD cell lines; increased migratory and invasive properties of LUAD cells and fibroblasts; and enhanced angiogenesis. SRGN was induced by DNA demethylation resulting from Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase-mediated impairment of methionine metabolism.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that SRGN plays a pivotal role in tumor-stromal interaction and reprogramming into an aggressive and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in TTF-1-negative LUAD.
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