Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is an overlapping myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorder of early childhood . It is associated with a spectrum of diverse outcomes ranging from spontaneous resolution in rare patients to transformation to acute myeloid leukemia in others that is generally fatal. This unpredictable clinical course, along with initially descriptive diagnostic criteria, led to decades of productive international research. Next-generation sequencing now permits more accurate molecular diagnoses in nearly all patients. However, curative treatment is still reliant on allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for most patients, and additional advances will be required to improve risk stratification algorithms that distinguish those that can be observed expectantly from others who require swift hematopoietic cell transplantation.
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