Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells as a potential therapeutic agent in acute kidney injury (AKI) in felines: review and perspectives

Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Sep 15;12(1):504. doi: 10.1186/s13287-021-02573-6.

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), known from their key role in the regeneration process of tissues, and their abilities to release bioactive factors like extracellular vesicles (EVs) could be considered as a potential, modern tool in the treatment of AKI (acute kidney injury) in both human and veterinary patients. The complex pathophysiology of a renal function disorder (AKI) makes difficult to find a universal therapy, but the treatment strategy is based on MSCs and derived from them, EVs seem to solve this problem. Due to their small size, the ability of the cargo transport, the ease of crossing the barriers and the lack of the ability to proliferate and differentiate, EVs seem to have a significant impact on the development such therapy. Their additional impact associated with their ability to modulate immune response and inflammation process, their strong anti-fibrotic and anti-apoptotic effects and the relation with the releasing of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), that pivotal role in the AKI development is undoubtedly, limits the progress of AKI. Moreover, the availability of EVs from different sources encourages to extend research with using EVs from MSCs in AKI treatment in felines; in that, the possibilities of kidney injuries treatment are still limited to the classical therapies burdened with dangerous side effects. In this review, we underline the significance of the processes, in whose EVs are included during the AKI in order to show the potential benefits of EVs-MSCs-based therapies against AKI in felines.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury; Apoptosis; Cats; Extracellular vesicles; Fibrosis; Inflammation; Mesenchymal stem cells; Oxidative stress.

Publication types

  • Review