A novel duplication involving PRDM13 in a Turkish family supports its role in North Carolina macular dystrophy (NCMD/MCDR1)

Mol Vis. 2021 Sep 1:27:518-527. eCollection 2021.


Purpose: To clinically and molecularly investigate a new family with North Carolina macular dystrophy (NCMD) from Turkey, a previously unreported geographic origin for this phenotype.

Methods: Clinical ophthalmic examinations, including fundus imaging and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), were performed on eight members of a two-generation non-consanguineous family from southern Turkey. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on two affected subjects, followed by variant filtering and copy number variant (CNV) analysis. Junction PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm and characterize the duplication involving PRDM13 at the nucleotide level. The underlying mechanism was assessed with in silico analyses.

Results: The proband presented with lifelong bilateral vision impairment and displayed large grade 3 coloboma-like central macular lesions. Five of her six children showed similar macular malformations, consistent with autosomal dominant NCMD. The severity grades in the six affected individuals from two generations are not evenly distributed. CNV analysis of WGS data of the two affected family members, followed by junction PCR and Sanger sequencing, revealed a novel 56.2 kb tandem duplication involving PRDM13 (chr6:99560265-99616492dup, hg38) at the MCDR1 locus. This duplication cosegregates with the NCMD phenotype in the five affected children. No other (likely) pathogenic variants in known inherited retinal disease genes were found in the WGS data. Bioinformatics analyses of the breakpoints suggest a replicative-based repair mechanism underlying the duplication.

Conclusions: We report a novel tandem duplication involving the PRDM13 gene in a family with NCMD from a previously unreported geographic region. The duplication size is the smallest that has been reported thus far and may correlate with the particular phenotype.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Asian People / genetics*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 / genetics
  • Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary / diagnostic imaging
  • Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary / genetics*
  • Female
  • Gene Duplication*
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pedigree
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Turkey / epidemiology
  • Whole Genome Sequencing


  • Transcription Factors
  • PRDM13 protein, human
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase

Supplementary concepts

  • Macular dystrophy, retinal, 1, North Carolina type