Background: Patients with platelet dysfunction disorders present with a variety of mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms including easy bruising, frequent epistaxis, bleeding gums upon tooth brushing and for women, heavy menstrual bleeding. Available laboratory assays to evaluate platelet function include the platelet function analyzer (PFA) and in larger centers with coagulation laboratories, light transmission platelet aggregometry (LTA) analyses. Both assays are known to have a number of limitations, especially in the diagnosis of platelet delta granule storage pool deficiency (δ-SPD). δ-SPD is an underdiagnosed condition caused by decreased numbers of platelet dense granules (DGs) and is best diagnosed by electron microscopy (EM). Patients with platelet δ-SPD have a decreased response to low levels of the agonist adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in the second wave of light transmittance with LTA or decreased ADP secretion by fluorescence lumiaggregometry. There are few reports that have evaluated patients with δ-SPD and their respective LTA results. One report published in 1987 described normal LTA assays in 23% of patients with δ-SPD; a more recent report described LTA as having the sensitivity to detect only about 52% of patients with δ-SPD. The purpose of our study was intended to review the LTA and EM results of patients suspected of having a platelet function disorder at our institution for comparison with previously published studies.
Methods: Our study included 344 patients who had been evaluated by both LTA and whole mount EM. Aggregometry utilized five agonists: ADP, epinephrine, collagen, arachidonic acid, and ristocetin. DGs were enumerated in 100 whole-mounted platelets to determine a mean number of dense granules per platelet (DGs/PL).
Results: Seventy-seven percent of our patients were found to have δ-SPD (264/344); 68% (179/264) of these subjects had an abnormal platelet LTA. Thirty-two percent (85/264) of our patients had normal LTA results but were found to have δ-SPD with a mean of 2.54 ± 0.15 DG/PL (normal = 4 - 6 DG/PL).
Conclusion: These data confirm previous reports suggesting the utilization of LTA alone in patients with histories of unexplained bleeding may miss the diagnosis of platelet δ-SPD. It is, therefore, prudent to assess platelet DG number by EM, especially if platelet LTA assessment is normal.
Keywords: Electron microscopy; Light transmission aggregometry; Platelet dysfunction; Storage pool deficiency.
Copyright 2021, Gunning et al.