Protective effects of sunscreen (50+) and octatrienoic acid 0.1% in actinic keratosis and UV damages

J Investig Med. 2021 Sep 16;jim-2021-001972. doi: 10.1136/jim-2021-001972. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Actinic keratosis is a form of dysplastic epidermal lesion resulting from chronic and excessive UV exposure with a certain risk of becoming cancerous. Current guidelines advocated the use of sunscreens to prevent photodamage. An efficient photoprotection must involve both primary protective factors such as UV filters and secondary factors (eg, antioxidants) able to disrupt the photochemical and genetic cascade triggered by UVs. An in vitro model of human skin (Phenion FT) was used to assess the photoprotective potential of a sunscreen containing inorganic sun-filters (50+ SPF) and 0.1% octatrienoic acid (KERA'+) after UVA (10 J/cm2) and UVB (25 mJ/cm2) by means of evaluation of the number of sunburn cells (SBCs) and apoptotic keratinocytes. Also resulting alterations in the gene expression of markers involved in apoptosis (Tumor protein 53), inflammation/immunosuppression (IL-6 and IL-8), oxidative stress (oxidative stress response enzyme heme oxygenase 1), remodeling (metalloproteinase 1) and cell-cell adhesion (E-cadherin) were investigated. Gene expression was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. This work demonstrated that the sunscreen preparations under study (with and without 0.1% octatrienoic acid, respectively) can be distinguished about their ability to prevent UVs-induced damage. Synergism between the inorganic filters and 0.1% octatrienoic acid was found (KERA'+) on all end points analyzed and this effect was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Our data revealed that topical application of a sunscreen containing inorganic filters (50+SPF) and 0.1% octatrienoic acid can protect from SBC formation, reduce the number of apoptotic keratinocytes and protect from the main molecular alterations caused by UV radiations.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory agents; biological assay; biomarkers; non-steroidal; skin.