Effects of Controlled Generator Fume Emissions on the Levels of Troponin I, C-Reactive Protein and Oxidative Stress Markers in Dogs: Exploring Air Pollution-Induced Cardiovascular Disease in a Low-Resource Country

Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2021 Dec;21(12):1019-1032. doi: 10.1007/s12012-021-09693-8. Epub 2021 Sep 17.


Exhaust fumes from petrol/diesel-powered electric generators contribute significantly to air pollution in many developing countries, constituting health hazards to both humans and animals. This study evaluated the serum concentrations of Troponin I (TnI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum levels/activities of oxidative stress markers: catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in dogs experimentally exposed to graded levels of petrol generator exhaust fume (PGEF). Sixteen (16) healthy and adult male Basenji dogs were randomly assigned into four groups (A-D). Group A was the unexposed control while groups B, C and D were exposed to PGEF for 1, 2 and 3 h per day, respectively, for 90 days. Repeated analysis were performed at the baseline, and every thirty days, for a total of 90 days. There was a significant interaction (p < 0.05) between the effects of PGEF exposure level (in h/day) and duration of exposure (in months) on all the tested serum parameters. There was a significant main effect (p < 0.05) for PGEF exposure level on the serum parameters. As the level of PGEF exposure was increased, the serum concentrations of TnI, CRP, CAT, MDA and NO increased, GSH decreased, whereas SOD activity increased by day 30 but declined at the end. Moreover, there was a significant simple main effect (p < 0.05) for duration of PGEF exposure. All the parameters increased as the duration of PGEF exposure was increased to 90 days except GSH concentration which decreased, whereas SOD activity increased initially but declined at the end of the study. Thus, there was increased serum concentrations of TnI, CRP and increased oxidative stress in the PGEF-exposed dogs. These findings are instructive and could be grounds for further studies on air pollutants-induced cardiovascular disease given the widespread use of electricity generators in many low-resource countries.

Keywords: Air pollution; Cardiovascular disease; Dogs; Generator exhaust fume; Low-resource countries; Toxicity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Developing Countries*
  • Dogs
  • Electric Power Supplies / adverse effects*
  • Gasoline / toxicity*
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Inhalation Exposure
  • Male
  • Nigeria
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Respiratory Rate / drug effects
  • Risk Assessment
  • Time Factors
  • Troponin I / blood*


  • Air Pollutants
  • Biomarkers
  • Gasoline
  • Troponin I
  • C-Reactive Protein