In analyzing the in vitro pattern of protein synthesis by the fat body and ovaries of the Hawaiian species Drosophila grimshawi, we have found that the ovaries synthesize much more protein than the female fat body and that the majority of the synthesized proteins are retained by the ovarian tissues. In contrast, the fat body secrets most of the proteins into the culture medium. Vitellogenins are the major class of proteins synthesized and released into the medium by both tissues. The synthesis of the three vitellogenin proteins (V1, V2, V3) is noncoordinate in the two tissues. Ovaries synthesize much more of the V2 protein, less V1 and very little V3, whereas fat body synthesizes more V1 protein with lesser quantities of the other two. The follicle cells were identified as the site of ovarian vitellogenin synthesis in D. grimshawi, confirming the findings in D. melanogaster. In D. grimshawi, the three vitellogenins are synthesized by the follicle cells in a noncoordinate and developmentally regulated manner. V2 and V1 are the predominant proteins at the onset of vitellogenesis (S8-9); their production peaks together with that of V3 a few hours later (S10) and then decreases to quantities equal to that of V3 during early choriogenesis (S11). During active choriogenesis (S12), V2 and V1 cease to be synthesized, but V3 synthesis continues. The vitellogenins synthesized by the follicles in vitro are released into the medium and not incorporated into the oocyte.