Clinical Utility of Anti-Mullerian Hormone in Pediatrics

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2022 Jan 18;107(2):309-323. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab687.


Context: Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) was originally described in the context of sexual differentiation in the male fetus but has gained prominence now as a marker of ovarian reserve and fertility in females. In this mini-review, we offer an updated synopsis on AMH and its clinical utility in pediatric patients.

Design and results: A systematic search was undertaken for studies related to the physiology of AMH, normative data, and clinical role in pediatrics. In males, AMH, secreted by Sertoli cells, is found at high levels prenatally and throughout childhood and declines with progression through puberty to overlap with levels in females. Thus, serum AMH has clinical utility as a marker of testicular tissue in males with differences in sexual development and cryptorchidism and in the evaluation of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome. In females, serum AMH has been used as a predictive marker of ovarian reserve and fertility, but prepubertal and adolescent AMH assessments need to be interpreted cautiously. AMH is also a marker of tumor burden, progression, and recurrence in germ cell tumors of the ovary.

Conclusions: AMH has widespread clinical diagnostic utility in pediatrics but interpretation is often challenging and should be undertaken in the context of not only age and sex but also developmental and pubertal stage of the child. Nonstandardized assays necessitate the need for assay-specific normative data. The recognition of the role of AMH beyond gonadal development and maturation may usher in novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications that would further expand its utility in pediatric care.

Keywords: AMH; DSD; MIS; fertility; pediatrics.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone / blood*
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone / metabolism
  • Child
  • Child Development
  • Cryptorchidism / blood
  • Cryptorchidism / diagnosis*
  • Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY / blood
  • Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Gonads / growth & development
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Ovarian Reserve*
  • Sexual Maturation


  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone

Supplementary concepts

  • Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome