Structural Perspectives and Advancement of SGLT2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Curr Diabetes Rev. 2022;18(6):e170921196601. doi: 10.2174/1573399817666210917122745.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is an ailment that affects a large number of individuals worldwide and its pervasiveness has been predicted to increase later on. Every year, billions of dollars are spent globally on diabetes-related health care practices. Contemporary hyperglycemic therapies to rationalize Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) mostly involve pathways that are insulin-dependent and lack effectiveness as the pancreas' β-cell function declines more significantly. Homeostasis via kidneys emerges as a new and future strategy to minimize T2DM complications. This article covers the reabsorption of glucose mechanism in the kidneys, the functional mechanism of various Sodium- Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, their structure and driving profile, and a few SGLT2 inhibitors now accessible in the market as well as those in different periods of advancement. The advantages of SGLT2 inhibitors are dose-dependent glycemic regulation changes with a significant reduction both in the concentration of HbA1c and body weight clinically and statistically. A considerable number of SGLT2 inhibitors have been approved by the FDA, while a few others, still in preliminaries, have shown interesting effects.

Keywords: SGLT2 Inhibitors; dapagliflozin; diabetes mellitus; glucose; hypoglycemia; phlorizin.

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glucosides
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors* / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Glucosides
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • Glucose