COVID-19 in Children: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacologic Interventions Including Vaccine Trials

Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 Oct;68(5):961-976. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2021.05.004. Epub 2021 May 18.


Children usually present with milder symptoms of COVID-19 as compared with adults. Supportive care alone is appropriate for most children with COVID-19. Antiviral therapy may be required for those with severe or critical diseases. Currently there has been a rapid development of vaccines globally to prevent COVID-19 and several vaccines are being evaluated in children and adolescents. Currently, only the Pfizer-BioNTech messenger RNA vaccine is approved for emergency authorization use in the pediatric population ages 16 years and older.

Keywords: COVID-19; Children; Coronavirus; Infant; SARS-CoV-2; Treatment; Vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • COVID-19 / prevention & control*
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Safety
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / adverse effects
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / therapeutic use*


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Synthetic

Supplementary concepts

  • pediatric multisystem inflammatory disease, COVID-19 related