The effect of stone and patient characteristics in predicting extra-corporal shock wave lithotripsy success rate: A cross sectional study

Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2021 Sep 10:70:102829. doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102829. eCollection 2021 Oct.

Abstract

Introduction: We determine the effect of patient characteristics (age, sex, and body mass index BMI) and stone characteristics (density, location, and size) by non-contrast computed tomography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder (CT-KUB) in predicting the success of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in the treatment of kidney and ureteric stones. We present this study to further enrich the knowledge of physicians towards the effect of different patient characteristics upon predicting extra-corporal shock wave lithotripsy success rates.

Methods: We evaluated 155 patients who received ESWL for renal and ureteric stone measuring 3-20 mm (mm), over a 3-month period. The stone size in millimeters, density in Hounsfield units (HU) and its location was determined on pre-treatment CT-KUB. ESWL was successful if post-treatment residual renal stone fragments were ≤3 mm and for ureteric stones should be totally cleared.

Results: The overall success of ESWL treatment was observed in 65.8% of the 155 patients. There was no significant difference seen when the effect of patients age, sex and BMI were studied with ESWL outcome with P values were 0.155, 0.101 and 0.415 respectively. Also, stone location either in the kidney or ureter has no statistically significant effect on ESWL response rate. while stone density and size determined on CT KUB have statistically significant effect on the success rate of ESWL with a P-value of 0.002 and 0.000 respectively.

Conclusions: This study shows that determination of stone density and stone size on CT KUB pre ESWL can help to predict the outcome of ESWL. We propose that stone density <500 HU and stone size < 5 mm are highly likely to result in successful ESWL.

Keywords: ESWL; Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Renal stone; Stone density; Ureteric stone.