Association of poultry consumption with cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and dose response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Sep 20;1-22. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1975092. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

According to previous cohort studies it is suggested that a high intake of poultry does not adversely affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarize and analyze the association between dietary poultry intake and the risk for CVDs, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and all-cause mortality (ACM). Twenty-four cohort studies were included, and the results showed a trivial inverse association for the highest vs. lowest intake category between poultry and ACM (risk ratio [RR] = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.98; I2 = 5%). For all other outcomes no association was observed in the high vs. low intake meta-analysis. The results from the primary pooled data for each 100 g/d increase in poultry intake indicated no association for all outcomes. Further, the non-linear dose-response analysis showed some evidence for non-linearity between poultry consumption and risk for CVD and ACM. Additionally, substituting red and/or processed meat with poultry was inversely associated with the risk for ACM, CVDs, CHD and stroke. The certainty of evidence was rated as very low or low. This meta-analysis suggests that based upon the results from the substitution analyses poultry could be a healthier alternative to red and processed meat.

Keywords: Poultry; cardiovascular disease; dietary intake; meta-analysis; mortality; systematic review.