Coffee consumption and gastric cancer: a pooled analysis from the Stomach cancer Pooling Project consortium

Eur J Cancer Prev. 2022 Mar 1;31(2):117-127. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000680.


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the relationship between coffee and gastric cancer using a uniquely large dataset from an international consortium of observational studies on gastric cancer, including data from 18 studies, for a total of 8198 cases and 21 419 controls.

Methods: A two-stage approach was used to obtain the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for coffee drinkers versus never or rare drinkers. A one-stage logistic mixed-effects model with a random intercept for each study was used to estimate the dose-response relationship. Estimates were adjusted for sex, age and the main recognized risk factors for gastric cancer.

Results: Compared to never or rare coffee drinkers, the estimated pooled OR for coffee drinkers was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.94-1.13). When the amount of coffee intake was considered, the pooled ORs were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81-1.03) for drinkers of 1-2 cups per day, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.82-1.10) for 3-4 cups, and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.79-1.15) for five or more cups. An OR of 1.20 (95% CI, 0.91-1.58) was found for heavy coffee drinkers (seven or more cups of caffeinated coffee per day). A positive association emerged for high coffee intake (five or more cups per day) for gastric cardia cancer only.

Conclusions: These findings better quantify the previously available evidence of the absence of a relevant association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Coffee* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Observational Studies as Topic
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / etiology
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / prevention & control


  • Coffee