In order to reassess the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in the development of myopia in Chinese schoolchildren, 90 pairs of MZ and 36 pairs of like-sex DZ twins were enrolled for detailed ophthalmological examination about their ocular refractions. Corneal curvatures and axial lengths were also measured. With equivalent settings of the range for concordance, corneal curvatures showed higher concordance rate (84%) than ocular refractions (65%) and axial lengths (59%) in MZ twins. F-test on the intrapair variances between MZ and DZ twins revealed a significant hereditary role in determining the ocular refraction and its optical components. The degree of genetic determination was expressed by heritability indices, which were derived from intraclass correlation coefficients. The diversity of sample ages and refractions, while making the obtained data difficult to further explore the gene-environment interaction, led to the observation of more intrapair differences with age and myopic progression in MZ twins.