The vertebrate eye primordium consists of a pseudostratified neuroepithelium, the optic vesicle (OV), in which cells acquire neural retina or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fates. As these fates arise, the OV assumes a cup shape, influenced by mechanical forces generated within the neural retina. Whether the RPE passively adapts to retinal changes or actively contributes to OV morphogenesis remains unexplored. We generated a zebrafish Tg(E1-bhlhe40:GFP) line to track RPE morphogenesis and interrogate its participation in OV folding. We show that, in virtual absence of proliferation, RPE cells stretch and flatten, thereby matching the retinal curvature and promoting OV folding. Localized interference with the RPE cytoskeleton disrupts tissue stretching and OV folding. Thus, extreme RPE flattening and accelerated differentiation are efficient solutions adopted by fast-developing species to enable timely optic cup formation. This mechanism differs in amniotes, in which proliferation drives RPE expansion with a much-reduced need of cell flattening.
Keywords: Zebrafish; chick; developmental biology; human; medaka; medaka fish; morphogenesis; mouse; neuroscience; optic cup; proliferation; squamous epithelium; tissue tension; zebrafish.
Rounded eyeballs help to optimize vision – but how do they acquire their distinctive shape? In animals with backbones, including humans, the eye begins to form early in development. A single layer of embryonic tissue called the optic vesicle reorganizes itself into a two-layered structure: a thin outer layer of cells, known as the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE for short), and a thicker inner layer called the neural retina. If this process fails, the animal may be born blind or visually impaired. How this flat two-layered structure becomes round is still being investigated. In fish, studies have shown that the inner cell layer – the neural retina – generates mechanical forces that cause the developing tissue to curve inwards to form a cup-like shape. But it was unclear whether the outer layer of cells (the RPE) also contributed to this process. Moreno-Marmol et al. were able to investigate this question by genetically modifying zebrafish to make all new RPE cells fluoresce. Following the early development of the zebrafish eye under a microscope revealed that RPE cells flattened themselves into long thin structures that stretched to cover the entire neural retina. This change was made possible by the cell’s internal skeleton reorganizing. In fact, preventing this reorganization stopped the RPE cells from flattening, and precluded the optic cup from acquiring its curved shape. The results thus confirmed a direct role for the RPE in generating curvature. The entire process did not require the RPE to produce new cells, allowing the curved shape to emerge in just a few hours. This is a major advantage for fast-developing species such as zebrafish. In species whose embryos develop more slowly, such as mice and humans, the RPE instead grows by producing additional cells – a process that takes many days. The development of the eye thus shows how various species use different evolutionary approaches to achieve a common goal.
© 2021, Moreno-Mármol et al.