Hematologically important mutations: The autosomal forms of chronic granulomatous disease (third update)

Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2021 Dec;92:102596. doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2021.102596. Epub 2021 Jul 28.


Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. CGD patients suffer from severe, recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. The disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the components of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. This enzyme produces superoxide, which is subsequently metabolized to hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). These products are essential for intracellular killing of pathogens by phagocytic leukocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages). The leukocyte NADPH oxidase is composed of five subunits, four of which are encoded by autosomal genes. These are CYBA, encoding p22phox, NCF1, encoding p47phox, NCF2, encoding p67phox and NCF4, encoding p40phox. This article lists all mutations identified in these genes in CGD patients. In addition, cytochrome b558 chaperone-1 (CYBC1), recently recognized as an essential chaperone protein for the expression of the X-linked NADPH oxidase component gp91phox (also called Nox2), is encoded by the autosomal gene CYBC1. Mutations in this gene also lead to CGD. Finally, RAC2, a small GTPase of the Rho family, is needed for activation of the NADPH oxidase, and mutations in the RAC2 gene therefore also induce CGD-like symptoms. Mutations in these last two genes are also listed in this article.

Keywords: Autosomal recessive; Chronic granulomatous disease; Mutation; NADPH oxidase; Polymorphism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Granulomatous Disease, Chronic / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Mutation*
  • NADPH Oxidases / genetics


  • NADPH Oxidases
  • CYBA protein, human
  • NCF2 protein, human
  • NCF4 protein, human
  • neutrophil cytosolic factor 1