AKT is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in metabolism, cell growth, and cytoskeletal dynamics. AKT is activated by two kinases, PDK1 and mTORC2. Although the regulation of PDK1 is well understood, the mechanism that controls mTORC2 is unknown. Here, by investigating insulin receptor signaling in human cells and biochemical reconstitution, we found that insulin induces the activation of mTORC2 toward AKT by assembling a supercomplex with KRAS4B and RHOA GTPases, termed KARATE (KRAS4B-RHOA-mTORC2 Ensemble). Insulin-induced KARATE assembly is controlled via phosphorylation of GTP-bound KRAS4B at S181 and GDP-bound RHOA at S188 by protein kinase A. By developing a KARATE inhibitor, we demonstrate that KRAS4B-RHOA interaction drives KARATE formation. In adipocytes, KARATE controls insulin-dependent translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane for glucose uptake. Thus, our work reveals a fundamental mechanism that activates mTORC2 toward AKT in insulin-regulated glucose homeostasis.
Keywords: AKT; KRAS GTPase; PKA; RHOA GTPase; insulin; mTORC2.
Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.