Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Post-Bulbar Ulcer Bleeding Compared to Bulbar Ulcer Bleeding in the Duodenum

Digestion. 2022;103(2):126-132. doi: 10.1159/000519293. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Abstract

Background: Duodenal ulcers are classified into bulbar and post-bulbar ulcers. The aim of this study is to compare the long-term outcomes of patients with post-bulbar ulcer bleeding and those with bulbar ulcer bleeding.

Methods: A total of 272 patients with hemorrhagic duodenal ulcers requiring hospitalization were included. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: All patients were categorized as bulbar or post-bulbar bleeding ulcer groups. The post-bulbar ulcer group had more patients of advanced age, concurrent malignancy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cirrhosis, and chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. We performed long-term follow-up for an average of 2.6 years. The mortality rate during the follow-up period in the post-bulbar ulcer group was significantly higher than that in the bulbar ulcer group (p < 0.001). The PNED score was a better predictor of 30-day mortality compared to the complete Rockall score and the Glasgow-Blatchford Score. Predictors of mortality were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. In multivariate analysis, post-bulbar ulcer, concurrent malignancy, cirrhosis, antiplatelet/anticoagulant use, and transfusion were significant predictors of mortality.

Conclusions: Patients with post-bulbar ulcers have a poorer prognosis than those with bulbar ulcers. After the diagnosis of hemorrhagic post-bulbar duodenal ulcer, close follow-up is necessary.

Keywords: Duodenal ulcer; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Helicobacter pylori; Melena; Patient outcome assessment.

MeSH terms

  • Duodenal Ulcer* / complications
  • Duodenal Ulcer* / therapy
  • Duodenum
  • Helicobacter Infections*
  • Helicobacter pylori*
  • Humans
  • Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage / therapy
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ulcer / complications
  • Ulcer / therapy